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Efficacy of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) for the treatment of tannery and surgical industry wastewater under citric acid amendment: a lab scale study

Contamination of land and aquatic ecosystems with heavy metals (HMs) is a global issue having the persistent potential to damage the quality of food and water. In the present study, Tagetes erecta L. plants were used to assess their potential to uptake HMs from wastewater. Plants were grown in soil for 20 days and then transplanted in hydroponic system containing Hoagland nutrient solution. After more than 15 days of growth, plants were then subjected to wastewater from tannery and surgical industries in different concentrations ranging from 25 to 100% in combination of citric acid (5 and 10 mM). After 6 weeks of treatment, plants were collected and segmented into roots, stem, and leaves for characterizing the morphological properties including plant height, roots length, fresh and dry mass of roots, stem, and leaves. For evaluation of the effect of wastewater on the plants, photosynthetic pigments; soluble proteins; reactive oxygen species (ROS); antioxidant enzymes SOD, POD, CAT, and APX; and metal accumulation were analyzed. Application of industrial wastewater revealed a significant effect on plant morphology under wastewater treatments. Overall growth and physiological attributes of plant decreased, and metal accumulation enhanced with increasing concentration of wastewater. Similarly, the production of ROS and antioxidant enzymes were also increased. Chlorophyll, protein content, and enzyme production enhanced with CA (5 and 10 mM) mediation; however, ROS production and EL were reduced. Metals analysis showed that the maximum accumulation of Pb was in roots, while Cr and Ni in the stem which further increased under CA mediation. Overall, the metal accumulation ability was in the order of Pb?>?Ni?>?Cr under CA.



This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 1914.