Multi-Level Control and Utilization of Stormwater Runoff
This study proposes the technology of &ldquo;runoff storage and seepage utilization&rdquo; for achieving purification of road rainfall&ndash;runoff and presents a multi-level series purification system (PBT-GR) comprising porous asphalt pavement (PAP), a bioretention system (BS), a storage tank (T) and a hydroponic green roof (GR). The operation parameters of each component unit were optimized and the contribution of each unit to pollution was analyzed. The results showed that under typical simulated rainfall, the suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), Pb, Zn and Cu removal rates by filtration and interception of porous pavement were 62.26 &plusmn; 3.19%, 16.29 &plusmn; 1.74%, 29.27 &plusmn; 1.37%, 37.61 &plusmn; 2.58%, 35.57 &plusmn; 4.64% and 31.17 &plusmn; 3.27%, respectively. The average concentrations of SS, TN, TP, Pb, Zn and Cu in the effluent of the PBT-GR system were 14.70 &plusmn; 2.21 mg/L, 1.52 &plusmn; 0.24 mg/L, 0.14 &plusmn; 0.04 mg/L, 0.09 &plusmn; 0.04 mg/L, 0.11 &plusmn; 0.03 mg/L and 0.04 &plusmn; 0.01mg/L, respectively, which met the water quality standards recommended in the Chinese guidelines and showed a high adaptability to pollution load. The contents of pesticide residues and heavy metals in cultivated vegetables met the national standards. The period required to recoup the investment in the system was approximately 3 years, indicating its good economic feasibility. The present study can provide a valuable reference of the construction of an efficient, low consumption and sustainable urban stormwater treatment system and can contribute to the improvement in the quality of the urban water environment.